Abstract. Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is expressed on the surface of infected cells and is a target of human antibody responses to dengue virus infection.
Replication cycle DENV is an enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus.
How does dengue virus infect cells?
The dengue virus attaches to the surface of a host cell and enters the cell by a process called endocytosis. Once deep inside the cell, the virus fuses with the endosomal membrane and is released into the cytoplasm. The virus particle comes apart, releasing the viral genome.
What is the structure of dengue virus?
The dengue virus has a roughly spherical structure. It is composed of the viral genome and capsid proteins surrounded by an envelope and a shell of proteins. After infecting a host cell, the dengue virus hijacks the host cell’s machinery to replicate the viral RNA genome and viral proteins.
What is NS1 protein in dengue?
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. The RNA viral genome encodes three structural and seven nonstructural proteins. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein actively secreted in vertebrate and mosquito cells during infection.
How does dengue virus replicate?
It is composed of the viral genome and capsid proteins surrounded by an envelope and a shell of proteins. After infecting a host cell, the dengue virus hijacks the host cell’s machinery to replicate the viral RNA genome and viral proteins. Newly synthesized dengue viruses can go on to infect other host cells.
What is unique about the dengue virus?
Dengue has distinct epidemiological patterns, associated with the four serotypes of the virus. These can co-circulate within a region, and indeed many countries are hyper-endemic for all four serotypes. Dengue has an alarming impact on both human health and the global and national economies.
What are the characteristics of dengue virus?
High grade fever with chills and rigors was the main presenting feature and was present in 100% of patients. Typically the onset of fever is sudden associated with severe headache, vomiting, abdominal pain and myalgias. The fever is usually between 101-105 0 F and lasts for 3-10 days.
How does dengue work in the body?
Severe dengue happens when your blood vessels become damaged and leaky. And the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your bloodstream drops. This can lead to shock, internal bleeding, organ failure and even death. Warning signs of severe dengue fever — which is a life-threatening emergency — can develop quickly.
Which cells are infected by dengue?
The virus infects nearby skin cells called keratinocytes, the most common cell type in the skin. The dengue virus also infects and replicates inside a specialized immune cell located in the skin, a type of dendritic cell called a Langerhans cell.
Which blood cells are affected in dengue fever?
Dengue fever can result in a drop in your white blood cell and platelet counts. The normal platelet count in the body ranges from 1.5 to 4 lacs, this can go down to as low as 20,000 to 40,000 in the case of dengue patients.
What is the pathogenesis of dengue fever?
The pathogenesis of dengue was attributed to various viral and host factors such as non-structural protein 1 (NS1) viral antigen, DENV genome variation, subgenomic RNA, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), memory cross-reactive T cells, anti-DENV NS1 antibodies and autoimmunity.
What is the outer layer of a virus called?
virion, an entire virus particle, consisting of an outer protein shell called a capsid and an inner core of nucleic acid (either ribonucleic or deoxyribonucleic acid—RNA or DNA). The core confers infectivity, and the capsid provides specificity to the virus.
What is the origin of dengue virus?
Dengue originated in monkeys and spilled over into humans as long as 800 years ago. It was restricted to Africa and Southeast Asia until the mid-20th century. The dengue viruses in viremic individuals and their Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors spread throughout tropical Southeast Asia via maritime shipments.
What is the host of dengue?
Humans are the only vertebrate hosts of the virus. Dengue is not transmitted directly from person to person. Only infected mosquitoes transmit dengue virus. It is thought that the mosquito contracts the virus when it bites an infected person.
Is NS1 antigen specific for dengue?
NS1 Ag assay is useful, sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of dengue infection, especially during the acute phase when antibodies are not detectable and the dengue serology was negative. Early diagnosis and timely intervention can reduce the mortality due to severe dengue infection.
Capture ELISA for detection of the NS1 protein. After wells were washed as described above, human sera or purified dengue virus type 1 NS1 diluted in PBS-Tween buffer was added to wells (40 μl/well) and incubated for 2 h at room temperature.
What does dengue IgM positive mean?
Interpretation of results Positive IgM: Patients with a positive IgM test result are classified as presumptive, recent dengue virus infections. Negative IgM: Patients with negative IgM results before day 8 of illness and absent or negative NAAT or NS1 results are considered unconfirmed cases.
Is dengue RNA or DNA virus?
Dengue virus (DENV) is the cause of dengue fever. It is a mosquito-borne, single positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus.
Where does dengue virus grow?
Dengue is an endemic disease, which means that it occurs regularly, in tropical regions of the world. The disease is endemic in more than one hundred countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia, the Caribbean, and the Pacific.
What is the name of dengue bacteria?
The pathogen Dengue is caused by a virus of the Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus which includes viruses such as yellow fever, West Nile and tick-borne encephalitis. There are four distinct dengue viruses without cross immunity. People can have up to four dengue infections in their lifetime.
What is the 4 stages of dengue fever?
Dengue begins abruptly after a typical incubation period of 5–7 days, and the course follows 3 phases: febrile, critical, and convalescent.
What is the first stage of dengue?
The most common symptom of dengue is fever with any of the following: Nausea, vomiting. Rash. Aches and pains (eye pain, typically behind the eyes, muscle, joint, or bone pain)
How many viruses does dengue have?
Dengue is caused by one of any of four related viruses: Dengue virus 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Is dengue transmitted by kissing?
No. Its not going to spread like that. Dengue is a disease mainly speard by mosquitoes. No definitely kissing is not going to spread.