What is hypertrophic remodeling?

Hypotrophic remodeling results in a relative thinner wall and a lower wall-to-lumen ratio. Conversely hypertrophic remodeling is characterized by thickening of the vascular wall due to cellular hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy or deposition of extracellular matrix material and results in increased wall-to-lumen ratio.

What causes vascular Remodelling?

Inflammation, vascular injury, oxidative stress, and hemodynamics are the most important drivers of vascular remodeling and are thought to play an important role in regulation of MMP production and activity. Vascular injury of the arterial wall upregulated MMP activity.

What is vascular remodeling in hypertension?

Vascular remodeling refers to alterations in the structure of resistance vessels contributing to elevated systemic vascular resistance in hypertension.

Does vascular Remodelling cause hypertension?

Conclusion. In hypertension, vascular remodeling contributes to increased peripheral resistance, impacting both development and complications of hypertension.

What is eutrophic remodeling?

It has been postulated that inward eutrophic remodeling occurs when resistance vessels exposed to high blood pressure are able to normalize circumferential stress via the repositioning of vascular smooth muscle cells around a smaller luminal diameter, a process that preserves wall cross-sectional area [31, 32, 47].

What does remodeling of the heart mean?

Abstract. Cardiac remodeling is defined as a group of molecular, cellular and interstitial changes that manifest clinically as changes in size, mass, geometry and function of the heart after injury. The process results in poor prognosis because of its association with ventricular dysfunction and malignant arrhythmias.

Is vascular Remodelling a pathophysiological problem?

Vascular remodeling is dependent on dynamic interactions between local growth factors, vasoactive substances, and hemodynamic stimuli and is an active process that occurs in response to long-standing changes in hemodynamic conditions; however, it may subsequently contribute to the pathophysiology of vascular diseases …

What is vascular remodeling in diabetes?

The effects of diabetes on the vasculature starts with endothelial dysfunction and lead to changes in the structure of large and small blood vessels, a change which is referred to as vascular remodeling (VRM).

What happens to blood vessels in COPD?

Emphysema, caused by damage to air sacs in the lungs, can result in pressure in the arteries between the heart and lungs. This can result in Group 3 pulmonary hypertension, high blood pressure in the blood vessels between the heart and lungs.

What are the pathological changes of vessels and organs caused by hypertension?

In benign hypertension, the major changes are in the small arteries and arterioles especially in the kidney. Interlobular arteries exhibit intimal thickening and duplication of the elastic lamina (elastosis) and there is hyaline change in the media of many arterioles.

What is microvascular remodeling?

Abstract. In the present review, microvascular remodelling refers to alterations in the structure of resistance vessels contributing to elevated systemic vascular resistance in hypertension.

What causes hypertension pathophysiology?

Factors that play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension include genetics, activation of neurohormonal systems such as the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, obesity, and increased dietary salt intake.

What is endothelial dysfunction?

Endothelial dysfunction is a type of coronary artery disease. A lack of nitric oxide gas inside of your blood vessel walls causes arteries to narrow. This narrowing slows blood flow to your heart. The condition causes angina (chest pain) and increases your risk of heart conditions.

What is vascular disease?

Vascular Disease (Vasculopathy) Vascular disease (vasculopathy) affects the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients throughout your body and remove waste from your tissues. Common vascular problems happen because plaque (made of fat and cholesterol) slows down or blocks blood flow inside your arteries or veins.

Is pulmonary arterial hypertension the same as high blood pressure?

Having pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) means that you have high blood pressure in the arteries that go from your heart to your lungs . It’s different from having regular high blood pressure. With PAH, the tiny arteries in your lungs become narrow or blocked.

What is hyaline Arteriolosclerosis?

Hyaline arteriolosclerosis is a common vascular lesion characterized by the accumulation of various serum proteins in the subendothelial space often extending into the media. Hyalin has a characteristic morphologic appearance, staining bright magenta with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and having a glassy texture.

What are the causes of vasoconstriction?

  • Prescription medicines or non-prescription medicines like decongestants. These have ingredients that cause blood vessels to narrow to provide relief.
  • Some medical conditions.
  • Some psychological problems, such as stress.
  • Smoking.
  • Being outside in the cold.

How does hypertension affect the structural integrity of blood vessel walls?

More elastic vessels, such as the aorta, attenuate the effects of hypertension initially by way of remodelling, but prolonged hypertension in these large elastic arteries and particularly in less elastic vessels (such as smaller arteries and veins) tends to alter the vessel wall shape and composition, ultimately …

What is remodeling after myocardial infarction?

Adverse ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) is a process of regional and global structural and functional changes in the heart as a consequence of loss of viable myocardium, exuberant inflammatory response, increased wall stress in the border zone and remote myocardium, and neurohormonal activation …

How long does it take for cardiac remodeling?

Cardiac remodelling is a dynamic and ongoing process up to 24 months following acute myocardial infarction. Long-term LVEF deterioration is characterised by an increase in end-systolic volume and less wall thickening in the remote zones.

What causes ventricular remodeling in heart failure patients?

In response to pathophysiological stimuli such as ischemia/reperfusion or excessive mechanical load, multiple molecular and cellular processes contribute to ventricular remodeling. These include cardiomyocyte loss through cell death pathways such as necrosis, apoptosis, or possibly excessive autophagy.

What is vascular fibrosis?

Vascular fibrosis refers to the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. collagen, elastin, fibrin, fibronectin, and proteoglycans) in the medial layer of blood vessels. From: Microcirculation, 2008.

Is arteriosclerosis a heart disease?

The plaque can cause arteries to narrow, blocking blood flow. The plaque can also burst, leading to a blood clot. Although atherosclerosis is often considered a heart problem, it can affect arteries anywhere in the body. Atherosclerosis can be treated.

How does diabetes cause endothelial damage?

Diabetic endothelium produces an increase in both O2 and H2O2 leading to enhanced intracellular production of OH. Thus, OH is implicated in diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction (Tesfamariam et al 1992; Pieper et al 1997). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated at sites of inflammation and injury.

How does type 2 diabetes affect blood vessels?

Blood vessels. Excess blood sugar decreases the elasticity of blood vessels and causes them to narrow, impeding blood flow. This can lead to a reduced supply of blood and oxygen, increasing the risk of high blood pressure and damage to large and small blood vessels.

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