What effect can ATP dependent chromatin remodeling have on transcription?

ATP-dependent chromatin alteration is accomplished by several multi-subunit chromatin-remodeling complexes that utilize energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to alter nucleosome structure or conformation and, thereby, regulate the access of transcription factors to their cognate DNA binding sites.

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What is ATP dependent chromatin remodeling?

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to alter chromatin architecture by repositioning, assembling, mobilizing, and restructuring nucleosomes.

Do chromatin remodeling complexes require ATP?

Two-step model of SWI/SNF and RSC action in chromatin remodeling. The binding of the remodeling complex to chromatin is ATP independent (A). Upon ATP addition, the conformation of nucleosomes changes as a consequence of the alteration of histone-DNA interactions (B).

What is the function of ATP dependent chromatin remodeling complexes quizlet?

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling may effect position of nucleosomes, evict histones, and may replace histones with histone variants. The addition of methyl groups to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis. Inhibits initiation of transcription when occurs near promoter.

What do chromatin remodelers do?

Chromatin remodelers are versatile tools that catalyze broad range of chromatin changing reactions including sliding of an octamer across the DNA (nucleosome sliding), changing the conformation of nucleosomal DNA and altering the composition of the octamers (histone variant exchange).

What does chromatin remodeling do?

Chromatin remodeling is the rearrangement of chromatin from a condensed state to a transcriptionally accessible state, allowing transcription factors or other DNA binding proteins to access DNA and control gene expression.

What is the function of chromatin remodeling complexes quizlet?

How do chromatin-remodeling complexes work? Chromatin-remodeling complexes use energy from ATP hydrolysis to alter the arrangement of nucleosomes, making the DNA more accessible to other proteins.

What is chromatin remodeling quizlet?

chromatin remodeling. he dynamic modification of chromatin architecture to allow access of condensed genomic DNA to the regulatory transcription machinery proteins, and thereby control gene expression.

What role do chromatin remodelers play in eukaryotic gene expression?

What role do chromatin remodelers play in eukaryotic gene expression? Chromatin remodeler enzymes can enzymatically change the distribution or composition of nucleosomes (histone octamers). a eukaryotic cis-acting DNA regulatory sequence to which transacting factors bind and stimulate transcription.

What is the mechanism of action of chromatin remodeling complexes?

The basic mechanism of chromatin remodeling depends on the three dynamic properties of nucleosomes: reconstruction, enzyme-induced covalent modification, and repositioning. Regarding reconstruction, nucleosomes can undergo compositional alteration using either canonical histones or special histone variants.

What eukaryotic process requires chromatin remodeling?

Further, nucleosome movement by chromatin remodelers is essential to several important biological processes, including chromosome assembly and segregation, DNA replication and repair, embryonic development and pluripotency, and cell-cycle progression.

When transcription is regulated by repressor proteins this is called?

genes. When a gene has constant levels of expression over time in a cell, it is: constitutive gene. When transcription is regulated by repressor proteins, this is called: negative control.

How does methylation of histone tails affect the accessibility of DNA?

Methylation and demethylation of histones turns the genes in DNA “off” and “on,” respectively, either by loosening their tails, thereby allowing transcription factors and other proteins to access the DNA, or by encompassing their tails around the DNA, thereby restricting access to the DNA.

What part of the chromatin fiber does the remodeling complex attach to quizlet?

book: (A) Using the energy of ATP hydrolysis, the remodeling complex is thought to push on the DNA of its bound nucleosome and loosen its attachment to the nucleosome core.

What is the name of the protein that binds the two separated DNA strands to keep them from base pairing again before they can be replicated?

FEEDBACK: As a replication fork travels along the chromosome, the helicase pries apart the two strands of the double-helix. Single-strand binding protein holds these two strands apart and keeps them from reforming base pairs by binding to the single-stranded DNA.

Does methylation require ATP?

We found that dynamic CG methylation was dependent on Lsh in embryonic stem cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that ATP function is critical for de novo methylation at repeat sequences.

What would happen to the Helix 3 interaction with DNA if a mutation occurred that altered this adenine to guanine?

What would happen to the helix-3 interaction with DNA if a mutation occurred that altered this adenine (as shown) to guanine? The integrity of the interaction would decrease because one of the two hydrogen bonds would not be able to form.

How could you reverse the epigenetic modifications to turn the genes back on?

Hypothetically, how could you reverse this process to turn these genes back on? You can create medications that reverse the epigenetic processes (to add histone acetylation marks or to remove DNA methylation) and create an open chromosomal configuration.

What is the consequence of methylation of DNA sequence called CpG islands?

Methylation of CpG islands can impair transcription factor binding, recruit repressive methyl-binding proteins, and stably silence gene expression. However, CpG islands, especially those associated with gene promoters, are rarely methylated.

What is chromatin Remodelling and how does it impact transcription?

Chromatin remodeling is the rearrangement of chromatin from a condensed state to a transcriptionally accessible state, allowing transcription factors or other DNA binding proteins to access DNA and control gene expression.

How do eukaryotes use chromatin remodeling to regulate transcription?

Because eukaryotic DNA is tightly wrapped around nucleosomes and the positive charges of the histones tightly bind the negative charges of the DNA, nucleosomes essentially act as a physical barrier to transcription factors that need to bind to certain regions of DNA.

What role do chromatin remodelers play in eukaryotic gene expression chegg?

Chromatin remodeling is an enzyme-assisted process which facilitates the access to nucleosomal DNA by dynamically remodeling the nucleosomal structure, composition and position. This is an enzyme-assisted process and an integral part of eukaryotic gene expression and regulation.

What are the writers erasers and readers in the histone acetylation process?

Histone acetylation and methylation are catalyzed, cleared and recognized by histone modifying enzymes (‘writers’), histone demodifying enzymes (‘erasers’), and acetyl- or methyl-binding proteins (‘readers’), respectively (3,15–17).

How does chromatin Remodelling regulate gene transcription?

As chromatin is condensed into the primary nucleosome structure, DNA becomes less accessible for transcription factors. With the loosening of this chromatin structure, however, transcription machinery is better able to access the genomic DNA, and transcription is thus promoted.

What are the two types of transcriptional regulators?

Some post-translational modifications known to regulate the functional state of transcription factors are phosphorylation, acetylation, SUMOylation and ubiquitylation. Transcription factors can be divided in two main categories: activators and repressors.

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